​​Hans Scholl​ 

​​22.09.1918​ - ​​22.02.1943​
​Hans Scholl, 1942​ © Family Hartnagel

​​Hans Scholl was the central figure of the White Rose, an anti-Nazi resistance group in Munich. Scholl, together with friends, wrote, produced and distributed six leaflets denouncing the Nazi regime. Hans Scholl was arrested and sentenced to death. Just before his execution he shouted: “Long live freedom!”. 

​​Hans Scholl was born in 1918 in Ingersheim, a small town in Württemberg. His father was the mayor there and at the family`s later place of residence, Forchtenberg. In 1932 his family moved to Ulm. Hans Scholl joined the Hitler Youth in 1933 when he was fourteen years old, although his father was against the Nazi regime.  

​Hans was responsible for a group of 160 boys. After a while he found the rigid structures of the Hitler Youth confining and began to follow the more liberal ideals of the forbidden Bündische Jugend (free youth movement). Hans was arrested during a wave of arrests aimed at these groups and was accused of homosexual behavior in April 1938. His rather small penalty was suspended due to a general amnesty. 

​Before Hans Scholl was allowed to start studying medicine in Munich in 1939, he had to complete the Reichsarbeitsdienst (Reich Labour Service) and two years of service in the Wehrmacht.  

​As a student and soldier, he was assigned to the 2. Studentenkompanie (Second Students´ Company) where he met Alexander Schmorell in June 1941. They soon became close friends. They shared literary and artistic interests and encouraged each other in their critical attitude towards National Socialism. In June and July 1942 Scholl and Schmorell published four “Leaflets of the White Rose” numbering some 100 copies each. 

​From mid July to the end of October 1942 Hans Scholl, Alexander Schmorell and other friends served as medical orderlies with their Students´ Company at the front near Moscow. The impression of the criminal warfare strengthened their opposition against the Nazi regime. Upon their return to Munich, they convinced more friends to support their resistance activities.

In January and February 1943, the group distributed a fifth and sixth leaflet, now supported by Professor Kurt Huber and others. Several thousand copies were produced and spread in major German cities. Hans Scholl, Alexander Schmorell and their friend Willi Graf also wrote clearly visible slogans on facades in Munich and at the university`s main entrance: “Down with Hitler”, “Hitler Mass Murderer” and “Freedom”. 

​When Hans and his sister Sophie Scholl spread the sixth leaflet at Munich University on 18 February 1943, they were arrested. After only four days, the Volksgerichtshof (People’s Court) sentenced them to death, along with their friend Christoph Probst. That same afternoon they were executed at the Munich-Stadelheim prison.